In order to understand the take‐up, use, and impacts of M‐PESA in Kenya, US based Principal Investigators William Jack (Georgetown) and Tavneet Suri (MIT Sloan School of Management) conducted a set of five surveys across Kenya, starting in yearly between 2008 and 2011, with a fifth survey conducted in 2014 to look at the longer-term impacts of M-PESA. The surveys were almost national in coverage (8% of the Kenya population was excluded from the sampling frame, primary in North and North-Eastern counties for logistical reasons) and were panel in nature in that the same households were tracked over time (not all households were found in every round and from round 3 onwards the Nairobi sample was dropped as it was too difficult to track the same households in Nairobi over such a long period of time). Details on how the original sample was drawn can be found in Jack and Suri (2011) and Jack and Suri (2014).
The five rounds of survey data were collected during the following periods:
- Round 1: August – October 2008 (3,000 households)
- Round 2: October 2009 – January 2010 (2,105 households)
- Round 3: May – August 2010 (1,531 households)
- Round 4: March – June 2011 (1,649 households)
- Round 5: June – September 2014 (1,688 households)